Alex Simotas, MD

Hospital for Special Surgery
Board Certified Physiatrist
Specializing In Spine & Sports Medicine



This section provides information and, in most cases videos, about the most common, but not all, conditions we treat including back, neck, hip, knee, shoulder, elbow and arm, disorders. For each condition there is a brief description of the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and possible treatments. You will have the ability to print a short brochure with all of the pertinent detail of your specific condition to review and discuss with your family or friends.

Anatomy of the Hip


The hip is a ball and socket joint that allows the upper leg to move front to back and side to side. The largest weight bearing joint in the body, the hip joint is surrounded by strong ligaments and muscle.… Read More

Anatomy of the Knee


The knee connects the upper leg bone to the lower leg bone. Cartilage covers the ends of both leg bones and the underside of the patella, or knee cap.… Read More

Anatomy of the Shoulder


The muscles and joints of the shoulder make it the most mobile joint in the human body.

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Anatomy of the Spine


The spinal column is the body’s main support structure. Its thirty-three bones, called vertebrae, are divided into five regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal.… Read More

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome


Carpal tunnel syndrome, also known as CTS, is a painful irritation of the median nerve in the hand and wrist. CTS develops over time because of repetitive hand motions.… Read More

Cervical Disc Herniation


When a disc in the cervical spine ruptures, soft material from inside the disc can form a bulge that presses painfully against the spinal cord and nerve roots.… Read More

Cervical Radiculopathy


Cervical radiculopathy refers to a pinching or inflammation of a cervical nerve from its exit point in the spine, called the neuroforamen.… Read More

Cervical Stenosis


This condition is a narrowing of the spinal canal that results from the degeneration of bones, discs, or joints in the cervical spine.… Read More



An inflammation or irritation around the tailbone or coccyx is called coccydynia. Pain and tenderness is present around the coccyx and may include the buttocks and sacrum.… Read More

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome


This condition is a compression injury to the ulnar nerve near the elbow. This is the nerve that produces a jolt when you bump your “funny bone.… Read More

Disc Herniation


This rupture of a vertebral disc can be caused by the normal wear of aging or by traumatic injury. A herniated disc can push painfully against a nerve root, sending pain down the sciatic nerve and resulting in a burning, tingling and/or numbing sensation from the lower back down to one or both feet.… Read More

Facet Joint Syndrome


This condition is a detereoration of the facet joints, which help stabilize the spine and limit excessive motion. The facet joints are lined with cartilage and surrounded by a lubricating capsule that enables the vertebrae to bend and twist.… Read More

Frozen Shoulder


This condition is a loss of motion or stiffness in the shoulder, usually accompanied by pain in the joint. Frozen shoulder is most common in people between the ages of 40 and 60, but can afflict anyone regardless of gender, arm preference or occupation.… Read More

Glenoid Labrum Tear


This injury is a tear of the labrum, a thick band of cartilage that lines the rim of the glenoid (which is commonly called the shoulder socket).… Read More

Hip Bursitis


This condition is an inflammation of the trochanteric bursa, a fluid-filled sac that lies between the femur and the iliotibial band, a thick, wide tendon on the outside of the hip joint.… Read More

Illiotbial Band Syndrome


This condition is a painful inflammation of the iliotibial band, a thick, tendon-like portion of a muscle that travels from the hip down the outer side of the thigh to the knee.… Read More



This unnatural curving of the spine is a deformation caused by disease or damage to the vertebrae.

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Labral Tear Of The Hip


This condition is a tearing of the labrum – a thick cuff of fibrous tissue that lines the hip socket. The labrum cushions the joint and provides a smooth surface for the head of the femur to glide within the socket.… Read More

Meniscus Tears


The meniscus is comprised of two c-shaped wedges of cartilage that cushion and stabilize the knee joint. A torn meniscus can cause pain and limited mobility in the knee.… Read More



Myelopathy is spinal cord dysfunction related to abnormal pressure placed on the spinal cord. Unlike conditions that cause pressure on individual nerve roots, this type of damage can result in loss of nerve function anywhere along the spinal cord below the damaged area.… Read More

Piriformis Syndrome


Piriformis Syndrome is an irritation of the sciatic nerve that occurs in the buttocks. The sciatic nerve is a thick nerve that forms from several spinal nerve roots in the lower spine that travels through the buttocks and extends down to the back of each leg.… Read More

Rotator Cuff Injuries


The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that cover the head of the humerus and hold it in the shoulder socket. When rotator cuff tendons become damaged, the shoulder can become stiff, sore or lose mobility.… Read More



This condition is an irritation or compression of one or more nerve roots in the lumbar spine. Because these nerves travel to the hips, buttocks, legs and feet, an injury in the lumbar spine can cause symptoms in these areas.… Read More



About two percent of people are affected by this deformation of the spine, which causes the normally straight spine to curve.

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Spinal Stenosis


Spinal stenosis results from new bone and soft tissue growth on the vertebrae, which reduces the space in the spinal canal. When the nerve roots are pinched, a painful burning, tingling and/or numbing sensation is felt from the lower back down to the legs and sometimes all the way to the feet.… Read More


Spondylolisthesis is the anterior or forward displacement of one vertebra in relation to the vertebrae below. The term spondylolisthesis comes from the Greek spondylos or vertebra and olisthesis which means “a slip”.… Read More


Spondylosis is the name given to describe the process of age related degeneration of the spine. This process is reviewed in detail in the article titled “the significance of spinal degeneration and how it relates to pain”, in our leaning center.… Read More

Tennis Elbow


This condition, commonly called tennis elbow, is a degeneration of the tendons that attach to the lateral epicondyle, the bony bump on the outer side of the elbow.… Read More

Trigger Finger


This common condition, also known as stenosing tenosynovitis, is a narrowing of a portion of the tendon sheath in the finger or thumb that interferes with normal finger movement.… Read More

Where Back Pain Begins


Vertebral discs are the spinal column’s shock absorbers. The discs cushion the vertebral bones and allow the spine to twist and bend.… Read More