Alex Simotas, MD

Hospital for Special Surgery
Board Certified Physiatrist
Specializing In Spine & Sports Medicine

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Where Back Pain Begins

Vertebral discs are the spinal column’s shock absorbers. The discs cushion the vertebral bones and allow the spine to twist and bend. Vertebral discs are composed of two main parts, a soft inner nucleus (nucleus pulposis) and a tough, fibrous outer wall (annulus fibrosis).